Sunday of the Palms (Healthy Pascua) of the 1513 navigator Spanish Juan Ponce de Leòn (photo) touched the coast of Florida with its three ships and took possession of the new territory in the name of the king of Spain calling it Healthy, in honor of the festivity day. In reality, de Leon was to search for gold, and territory was pushed thus till the Gulf of Mexico, exploring nearly Vergine, covered with forests and populated by aborigines, generally hostile.
In fact, they were killed by an arrow during a successive shipment in 1521.
For approximately 50 years they followed other Spanish shipments, some of which tried to fix in the region of the stable takeovers until a first appropriation of Ugonotti was had French, immediately destroyed to work dell’ admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés for order of the king of Spain Filippo II. Menendez, named after the governing king of Florida, was the founder of the most ancient stable takeover in North America, the city of St. Augustine (1565).
The colonization of Florida was put into effect not only for the work of the military but also for l’ the activity of Jesuit missionaries and Franciscans, who tried to make the conversion work, pushing themselves with their missions well into the peninsula, still in significant unexplored part. Meantime, the expansionistic sights of the English and the French they generated numerous crashes with the Spanish, whose outposts were often besieged, comprised St. Augustine. GIi Spanish had while established another permanent appropriation to Pensacola, then successively Ia based their dominion on the region.
At the end delta war of Seven Years (1763), Florida was yielded to the English from Spain, but it acquired newly the dominion at the end of the war of American lndipendenza. In the 20 years of English dominion, they were encouraged l’ takeover of new colonies, l’ agriculture, and l’ breeding, which had a remarkable increment. In the course of a period of Spanish dominion, they were always made sourer the contrasts between the United States d’ America and Spain until, in 1818 Andrew Jackson, the future President of the USA, port the war against the Seminole Indians in the territory of Florida (First war of the Seminole), occupying of a part.
After a series of crashes, Spain and the USA came to an agreement themselves for the cession of Florida to this last (Healthy Purchase Act, 1819) that it came definitively ratified in the February of 1821, a year in which the American government stable to St. Augustine. The year successive Florida came erected to territory, and in 1824 it happens then came transferred to Tallahassee. In the period preceding the Civil War, Florida knew a strong agricultural expansion (cotton, maize, sugar cane, tobacco, citruses) and strong technical and social progress, with the construction of harbor railroads, structures, and expansion of the cities.
At the same time, the State was very difficult from the hard conflict remembered like the Second war of the Seminole, generated from the fact that Indian fairs refused of being transferred to the reservoirs, leaving their territories well Everglades. They opposed a courageous resistance, guided dall’ trained Osceola head, then captured and died in jail (1837). It was a war bloody that saw the substantial capitulation of the Indians so that at the end of the conflict only little hundreds of them still lived in their own territories all’ inside dell’ Everglades.
In 1845 Florida came to make part of the federation of the States United d’ America, like ventisettesimo Be: its economy and its well-being were based mostly on the agricultural activities exercised by the slaves, while the political class belonged in a wide part alI land, the detent-rice aristocracy of wealth and privileges. He was natural therefore, then to the explosion of the War Civlle (1860) Florida with the Secessionists, even if it was alone marginally interested in the conflict, to which it participated above all putting on hand own agricultural products and I own ports, as a shelter for the ships confederate or allied of these.
At the end of the conflict (1865) State was subject for some years to military occupation, while a new Constitution came true and a republican government was established, with the election of Harrison Reed (1868). The republicans maintained the governor till 1877 when the elections they came won from the democratic who remained in the government in order for nearly one century. In these years Florida, from State still partially wild and depopulated, began its economic and demographic takeoff with l’ constant immigration from other zones of the USA, the development of tourism above all to Miami, Miami Beach, Palm Spring, Bordering and Keys, and dell’ industries and, consequently, the improvement of the communication ways.
At the same time, they came to put into effect reclamation works and water drainage of the areas swampy, in order to earn land for cultivation and they came discovered phosphate wealth (1880) of which the State divenne first, producing worldwide. From the end of the first world war, it was manifested an ulterior economic push, then expressed above all in the real estate field, with the widening of the city areas in which they were constructed continuously new buildings in order to make forehead to the crescents requirements tied all’ immigration and to the tourism. Such development was not arrested with the second world war, but indeed it carried to a level of wealth without precedence, fed in determining measure from the tourism of Miami and Miami Beach of the mitezza of the climate during all the year.
In successive years according to worldwide conflict, one has had constant affirmation of the conservative tendencies in politics, culminated with l’ election after nearly a century, of a governor republican (1966). Today Florida suffers from the typical evils of contemporary society’s hard wealth concentration: it has recalled and it recalls still a strong migratory flow from the center of South America and also from other States of the USA beyond that from the island of Cuba. And generated a multiracial society thus, with large problems of integration for the population of color, constituted of black and they give Hispanic-Americans, coming generally from Cuba and Haiti.
Florida, and in a particular way to Miami and Miami Beach, makes head the majority of the exchanges and the traffics, also illegal, with South America, above all those legacies at the market of the drug. Miami moreover, and from always for its position, the main one through in the financial relationships and it trades them with l’ Latin America, from whose many happen them in escape takes the way of Florida. And not it only happens them, but also a great number of emigre and fuggitivi, for political reasons, or simply pushes from the tragic ones living conditions, feed a continuous flow towards what it comes considered like a rich and free Country, the possibility of one to happen better.
Among all the immigrants, “regular” or “clandestine”, many are those who succeed To integrate themselves and to find a place, but many are also those who live at the margins of society metropolitan, in the misery and the degradation of the anonymous people slums peripheral, often surviving thanks to illegal activities.
To Miami and Miami Beach, one exists also a remarkable Haitian community, that has its heart in Little Haiti.
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