History and Civilization of Miami Beach and Florida

Juan Ponce de Leòn, spanish navigator touched the coast of Florida

Sunday of the Palms (Healthy Pascua) of the 1513 navigator Spanish Juan Ponce de Leòn (photo) touched the coast of Florida with its three ships and taken possession of the new territory in the name of the king of Spain calling it Healthy, in honor of the festivity day. In reality de Leon was to the search of the gold and a territory was pushed thus till the Gulf of Mexico, exploring nearly vergine, covered of forests and polulated from aborigines, generally hostile.

In fact they were killed from arrow during a successive one shipment of 1521.

For approximately 50 years they followed other Spanish shipments, some of which tried to fix in the region of the stable takeovers, until a first appropriation of Ugonotti was had French, immediately destroyed to work dell’ admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés for order of the king of Spain Filippo II. Menendez, name from the governing king of Florida, was the founder of the most ancient stable takeover in North America, the city of St. Augustine (1565).

The colonization of Florida was put into effect not only to work of military, but also for l’ activity of Jesuit missionaries and Franciscans, that they tried to make conversion work, pushing itself with their missions nell’ intemo of the peninsula, still in great unexplored part. Meantime, the expansionistic sights of English and the French they generated numerous crashs with the Spanish, whose outposts were often besieged, comprised St. Augustine. GIi Spanish had while established an other permanent appropriation to Pensacola, than divenne successively Ia base of their dominion on the region.

At the end delta war of Seven Years (1763), Florida was yielded to English from Spain, than but of it acquired newly the dominion at the end of the war of American lndipendenza. In the 20 years of English dominion they were encouraged l’ takeover of new colonies, l’ agriculture and l’ breeding, that they had a remarkable increment. In the course of according to period of Spanish dominion they were always made more sour the contrasts between the United States d’ America and Spain until, in the 1818 Andrew Jackson, the future President of the USA, port the war against the Seminole Indians in the territory of Florida (First war of the Seminole), occupying of a part.

After a series of crashs, Spain and USA came to an agreement themselves for cession of Florida to this last (Healthy Purchase Act, 1819) that it came definitively ratified in the February of 1821, year in which the American government stable to St. Augustine. The year successive Florida came erected to territory, and in 1824 it happens them came transferred to Tallahassee. In the period precedence the Civil War, Florida knew a strong one agricultural expansion (cotton, maize, sugar cane, tobacco, citruses) and a strong technical and social progress, with the construction of harbour railroads, structures, expansion of the cities.

At the same time the State but was travagliato from the hard conflict remembered like Second war of the Seminole, generated from the fact that i Indian fairs refused of being transferred in the reservoirs, leaving their territories nell’ Everglades. They opposed a courageous resistance, guided dall’ trained Osceola head, then captured and died in jail (1837). It was a war bloody that saw the substantial capitulation of the Indians, so that at the end of the conflict only little hundreds of they they still lived in own territories all’ inside dell’ Everglades.

In 1845 Florida it came to make part of the federation of the States United d’ America, like ventisettesimo Be: its economy and its well-being were based mostly on the agricultural activities exercised from the slaves, while the political class belonged in wide part alI’ land, detentrice aristocracy of wealth and privileges. He was natural therefore, than to the explosion of the War Civlle (1860) Florida schierasse with the Secessionisti, even if it was alone marginally interested from the conflict, to which it participated above all putting on hand own agricultural products and i own ports, as shelter for the ships confederate or allied of these.

At the end of the conflict (the 1865) State was subject for some year to military occupation, while a new Constitution was come true and a republican government was established, with l’ election of Harrison Reed (1868). The republicans maintained the govemo till 1877, when the elections they came won from the democratics who remained to government in order nearly one century. In these years Florida, from State still partially wild and depopulated, it began its economic and demographic takeoff with l’ constant immigration from other zones of the USA, the development of tourism above all to Miami, Miami Beach, Palm Spring, Bordering and Keys, and dell’ industris and, consequently, the improvement of the communication ways.

At the same time they came put into effect reclamation works and water-drainage of the areas swampy, in order to earn land to the cultivations and they came discovered phosphate wealth (1880) of which the State divenne first, producing world-wide. From the end of the first world war it was manifested un’ ulterior economic push, than expressed above all in real estate field, with the widening of the city areas in which they were constructed continuously new buildings in order to make forehead to the crescents requirements tied all’ immigration and to the tourism. Such development was not arrested with the second world war, but indeed it carried to a level of wealth without precedence, fed in determining measure from the tourism of Miami and Miami Beach of the mitezza of the climate during all the year.

In the successive years to according to world-wide conflict, one has been had constant affirmation of the conservative tendencies in politics, culminated with l’ election after nearly a century, of a governor republican (1966). Today Florida suffers from the typical evils of contemporary societies hard wealth concentration: it has recalled and it recalls still a strong migratory flow from the center South America and also from other States of the USA beyond that from the island of Cuba. And generated a multiracial society thus, with large problems of integration for the population of color, constituted from black and they give Hispanic-Americans, coming generally from Cuba and Haiti.

To Florida, and in particular way to Miami and Miami Beach, makes head the majority of the exchanges and the traffics, also illegal, with South America, above all those legacies at the market of the drug. Miami moreover, and from always for its position, the main one through in the financial relationships and it trades them with l’ Latin America, from whose many happen them in escape takes the way of Florida. And not it only happens them, but also a great number of e’migre’ and fuggitivi, than for political reasons, or simply pushes from the tragic ones living conditions, feed a continuous flow towards what it comes considered like a rich and free Country, the possibilitá of one to happen better.

Between all the immigrants, “regular” or “clandestines”, many are those which succeed To integrate themselves and to find a sistemazione, but many are also those which live to the margins of the society metropolitan, in the misery and the degradation of the anonymous people slums peripheral, often surviving thanks to illegal activities.

The Cuban community, most large, and that which better has become part in the social woven one of the State, costiuendo to Miami and Miami Beach one great quarter, a city in the city, to Little Havana, where gil immigrants succeed to maintain own, identity, recreating they ambient, speaking own language and conserving, for how much possible, he uses and traditions.

To Miami and Miami Beach one exists also remarkable Haitian community, that it has its heart in Little Haiti.

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